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Gastroenterology concentrates on the treating of diseases affecting the gastrointestinal tract involving stomach, pancreas, gallbladder, esophagus, large and small intestine. A gastroenterologist possesses detailed knowledge and understands the normal physiology of the digestive system as well as the proper motility of the gastrointestinal tract.

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Gastroenterology Symptoms

The various gastroenterology symptoms include: 

  • Constipation 
  • Abdominal Pain
  • Irritable bowel syndrome 
  • Hemorrhoids 
  • Anal fissures 
  • Perianal abscesses 
  • Anal fistulas 
  • Perianal infections 
  • Diverticular diseases 
  • Colitis 
  • Colon polyps
  • Diarrhea
  • Blood in the stool
  • Gastroesophageal Reflux Disease

Basic Tests To Diagnose Gastrointestinal Problems:

  • USG Abdomen: Abdominal ultrasound helps the doctor to see the organs present inside the abdomen. They show the structure and movement of internal organs as well as blood flow through blood vessels.
  • CT Scan of Abdomen: An abdominal Computed Tomography scan detects signs of inflammation, infection, injury or diseases associated with liver, spleen, kidneys, bladder, stomach, intestines, pancreas, and adrenal glands. It is also used to view blood vessels and lymph nodes in the abdomen.

Gastroenterology Procedures:

  • Colonoscopy: Colonoscopy is a medical test for examining the abnormalities and changes in the large intestine and rectum. This is done by inserting a long, flexible tube into the rectum with an attached tiny video camera helping the doctor to view the inside of the entire colon for better diagnosis.
  • Capsule Endoscopy: This medical procedure is for examining the complete small intestine. A pill-sized vitamin capsule is ingested having its own light source and camera. The images are then sent by the capsule traveling through the entire body that can be seen on the waist belt worn by the patient having a data recorder.
  • Sigmoidoscopy: It is a medical procedure for viewing the inside of the rectum and lower colon(sigmoid colon) and descending colon for any polyps, ulcers or cancer. This is done with the help of a small tube with a camera and light called a sigmoidoscope.
  • Sigmoidoscopy Polypectomy: Polypectomy is the removal of a polyp that is achieved by using instruments through channels of the endoscope. If a polyp is found on the left side of the bowel, there is a higher chance of polyps being present on the right side of the bowel as well.
  • Laparoscopic Appendectomy: This is a minimally invasive surgery for the removal of the appendix through several small incisions, rather than through a larger one. Recovery time from the laparoscopic appendectomy is short.
  • Foreign Body Removal: Foreign bodies in gastrointestinal often leads to perforation of the intestinal tract and spilling of intestinal contents into the abdomen. This leads to inflammation of the abdominal lining allowing bacterial proliferation and contamination which are life-threatening. Some foreign bodies located in the stomach can be retrieved using an endoscope. However, most require surgical abdominal exploration and removal.
  • Endoscopy: Endoscopy is a test performed to examine any part of the upper digestive system) including the small intestine, stomach, esophagus, and mouth). It is done by inserting a long, flexible pipe through the mouth for diagnosis and treatment.
  • Esophageal stenting: It is a medical procedure in which a pipe is inserted in the esophagus to open the blocked area. This surgery is carried out to help swallow fluids and solids. Esophageal stenting is a part of the treatment for peptic esophageal strictures, esophageal perforation, tracheoesophageal fistula, etc.
  • Biliary Endoscopic Sphincterotomy(BES): Biliary Endoscopic Sphincterotomy(BES) is the most commonly performed treatment for gallstones in the bile duct. During the BES procedure, a balloon or basket-like device is inserted into the bile duct to extract the gallstones. About 85% of bile duct stones can be removed using BES.
  • Colon resection: Colon Resection is a surgery that is done to treat colon cancer. The part of your colon containing the cancerous cells is removed. Then, the healthy ends of your colon are sewn back together. Small surgical instruments and a video camera are inserted into the incisions to remove the part of your colon that has cancer.
  • Laparoscopy Assisted Hemicolectomy: It is a surgery performed with the aid of a laparoscope to remove all/part of the colon through several small incisions made in the wall of the abdomen. In order to guide the surgery, the laparoscope is inserted through one opening. Surgical instruments are then inserted through other openings to perform the surgery.
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