Gynecology is a medical branch that focuses on the health of the female reproductive system. Gynecology includes the diagnosis, treatment, and care of women’s reproductive systems that include the vagina, uterus, ovaries, and fallopian tubes. Gynecology is a medical field encompassing all issues related to women’s health from puberty to adulthood. Gynecology represents most of the reproductive care that women receive during their lifetime.
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The most common gynecological signs and symptoms are:
- Abnormal bleeding during periods
- Frequent and urgent need to urinate
- Burning sensation during urination
- Bleeding after menopause
- Pain or pressure in the pelvis that differs from menstrual cramps
- Itching, swelling, burning, soreness, or redness in the vaginal area
- Sores or lumps in the genital area
- Vaginal discharge with an unpleasant odor or unusual color
Diagnosis and Screening for Gynecologic Conditions
- Sonohysterography: Sonohysterography is a medical procedure that uses sound waves and a computer to create images for viewing the inside of the uterus. During sonohysterography, an ultrasound transducer which is covered with a disposable sheath and coated with a special gel is placed in the vagina. A thin, flexible tube called a catheter is then inserted into the cervix and a salty fluid called saline is sent through the catheter into the uterus. At the same time, the transducer sends high-frequency sound waves through the gel and into the body. The echoes from these sound waves create a real-time image showing the structure of the uterus. Doctors then use this information to diagnose a number of different health conditions.
- Cervical Biopsy: A cervical biopsy is a medical procedure of removing tissues from the cervix to test for abnormal/precancerous conditions or cervical cancer. The lower and narrow part of the uterus is called the cervix which forms a canal opening into the vagina. Cervical biopsies can be done in several ways including punch biopsy, cone biopsy, and Endocervical Curettage(ECC). A cervical biopsy is performed when abnormalities are found during a pelvic exam or if abnormal cells are found during a Pap Smear test.
- Pelvic Ultrasound: A pelvic ultrasound is a noninvasive diagnostic test for producing images that are used to examine organs and structures within the female pelvis including the uterus, cervix, vagina, fallopian tubes, and ovaries. The other type of ultrasound is the Doppler ultrasound, also called a duplex study, used to display the speed and direction of blood flow in certain pelvic organs.
Treatment Procedures in Gynecology
- Dilation and Curettage
- Endometrial Ablation
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