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Kidney transplant refers to the replacement of failed kidneys with healthy, functional kidneys from the donor. People who receive a kidney transplant must follow medication and be monitored by a nephrologist for their whole lives.
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End-Stage Kidney Disease
The Main function of the kidneys is to filter and remove waste, minerals, and fluid from the blood by producing urine. When kidneys lose this filtering ability, harmful levels of fluid and waste accumulate in the body, which increases blood pressure resulting in kidney failure(end-stage kidney disease). End-stage kidney disease occurs when the kidneys have lost about 90% of their ability to function normally. People with end-stage kidney disease should have waste removed from their bloodstream via dialysis or a kidney transplant to stay healthy.
Indications of Kidney Transplant:
The indication for kidney transplantation, despite the primary cause, is end-stage renal disease (ESRD).
The diseases that lead to ESRD include:-
- Polycystic kidney disease
- Autoimmune diseases
- Genetic cases
- Inherent errors of metabolism
The most common known cause of kidney transplantation is Diabetes.
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- Deceased-Donor Kidney Transplant: A deceased-donor kidney transplant is done when a kidney from a deceased donor is removed with the consent of their family and placed in a recipient whose kidneys have failed and no longer function properly and are in need of kidney transplants.
- Living-Donor Kidney transplant: A living-donor kidney transplant is done when a kidney from a living donor is removed and placed in a recipient whose kidneys no longer function properly. Only one donated kidney is required to replace two failed kidneys which make living-donor kidney transplant an alternative to a deceased-donor kidney transplant.
- Preemptive Kidney Transplant: A preemptive kidney transplant is done when the recipient receives a kidney transplant before their kidney function deteriorates to the point where they need dialysis to replace the normal filtering function of the kidneys. Presently, most kidney transplants are performed on those who are on dialysis since their kidneys no longer adequately clean impurities from the blood.
- Prospective donors are thoroughly evaluated on medical and psychological basis. This ensures that the donor is fit for surgery and has no disease which brings risk for either the donor or the recipient.
- The psychological assessment is done to make sure that the donor gives his consent after being informed and is not forced.
Life After Kidney Transplant
After your kidney transplant, you should be prepared to:
- Spend days or weeks in the hospital.
- Doctors and nurses observe your condition in the hospital’s transplant recovery area to ensure that there are no signs of complications.
- You may be in need of temporary dialysis till your new kidneys begin to function well.
- Expect soreness around the incision area while you’re healing.
Conditions to be followed
- Most kidney transplant patients can get back to work and perform other normal activities within eight weeks after transplant.
- No lifting objects weighing more than 4 kgs or exercise until the wound is healed (about six weeks after surgery). Walking is permitted.
Have frequent checkups while you're recovering.
- After you leave the hospital, close monitoring is necessary for a few weeks to inspect your new kidney’s working and to make sure your body is accepting it.
- Your blood tests will be taken several times a week and your medications should be tuned in for the weeks after your transplant.
Take Medications After Transplantation
- You’ll take a number of medicines after your kidney transplant.
- Anti-rejection medicines must be consumed by you to prevent your immune system from rejecting your new kidney.
- Further medicines help reduce the risk of other complications after your transplant.
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